Grade Retention & Demotion

Grade Retention & Demotion

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Some schools use grade retention as a disciplinary consequence for students who violate the school’s code of conduct.  Grade retention has been shown to have many detrimental effects, but no positive effects on students or behavior.

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Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of high school

This article provides a comprehensive review of dropout research that examines grade retention within both associative and predictive models. The discussion addresses the discrepancies among the perspectives of many educational professionals regarding the effectiveness of grade retention and deleterious long-term correlates. Educational professionals, teachers, researchers, parents, and policymakers considering the efficacy of grade retention are encouraged to consider the implications of these findings.

A synthesis of grade retention research: Looking backward and moving forward

Admidst an era emphasizing educational standards and accountability, and politicians calling for an end to social promotion, the practice of grade retention has become increasingly popular. Legislative sanctions have brought about many debates surrounding grade retention and social promotion. Given the abundance of research examining the efficacy of grade retention as well as alternative prevention and intervention strategies, education professionals are encouraged to make informed decisions.


Meta-analysis of grade retention research: Implications for practice in the 21st century

This article provides a comprehensive review of the research examining the academic and socioemotional outcomes associated with grade retention. Following a brief historical overview of previously published literature reviews, a summary of studies published between 1990 and 1999 is provided.  This review encourages researchers, educational professionals, and legislators to abandon the debate regarding social promotion and grade retention in favor of a more productive course of action.